Ribavirin (aka Rebetol, Vilona & Ribacip) 200 or 400mg

Ribavirin (aka Rebetol, Vilona & Ribacip) 200 or 400mg
Price: $95.00
Product ID : ribavirin_200mg
Manufacturer: CIPLA

Description

Ribavirin 200mg & 400mg capsules

Brand Names: Rebetol, Vilona & Ribacip

Generic: ribavirin

Ribavirin (brand names: Copegus, Rebetol, Ribasphere, Vilona and Virazole) is an anti-viral drug indicated for severe RSV infection (individually), hepatitis C infection (used in conjunction with peginterferon alfa-2b or peginterferon alfa-2a) and other viral infections. Ribavirin is a prodrug, which when metabolized resembles purine RNA nucleotides. In this form it interferes with RNA metabolism required for viral replication. How it exactly affects viral replication is unknown; many mechanisms have been proposed for this (see Mechanisms of Action, below) but none of these has been proven to date. Multiple mechanisms may be responsible for its actions.

The primary observed serious adverse side effect of ribavirin is hemolytic anemia, which may worsen preexisting cardiac disease. The mechanism for this effect is due to ribavarin's buildup inside erythrocytes. Oxidative damage to erythrocyte cell membrane is usually inhibited by glutathione; however, with reduced ATP levels caused by ribavirin, glutathione levels are impaired, permitting oxidative erythrocyte cell lysis. The gradual loss of erythrocytes leads to anemia. The anemia is dose-dependent and may sometimes be compensated by decreasing dose. Ribavirin is also a teratogen in some animals species and thus poses a theoretical reproductive risk in humans, remaining a hazard as long as the drug is present, which can be as long as 6 months after a course of the drug has ended.

In Mexico, oral ribavirin has been available since the 1980s as an over-the-counter drug ("ribavirina," ICN pharmaceuticals Spanish tradename Vilona), for treating influenza. In this form it was occasionally brought into the U.S. for HIV/AIDS patients. However, ribavirin has proven to have little if any clinical usefulness against HIV, and it can greatly increase blood levels and also toxicity of the HIV antiviral didanosine (ddI, Videx). Other interactions with nucleoside antivirals for HIV should be considered when HIV/AIDS patients use ribavirin to treat hepatitis C (see "aidsinfo" external link)

Pharmacokinetics

Ribavirin is absorbed from the GI tract probably by nucleoside transporters. Absorption is about 45%, and this is modestly increased (to about 75%) by a fatty meal. Once in the plasma, ribavirin is transported through the cell membrane also by nucleoside transporters.

Ribavirin is widely distributed in all tissues, including the CSF and brain. The pharmacokinetics of ribavirin is dominated by trapping of the phosphate form inside cells, particularly red blood cells (RBCs) which lack the enzyme to remove the phosphate once it has been added by kinases, and therefore attain high concentrations of the drug. Most of the kinase activity which converts the drug to active nucleotide form, is provided by adenine kinase. This enzyme is more active in virally infected cells.

The volume of distribution of ribavirin is large (2000 L/kg) and the length of time the drug is trapped varies greatly from tissue to tissue. The mean half-life for multiple doses in the body is about 12 days, but very long-term kinetics are dominated by the kinetics of RBCs (half-life 40 days). RBCs store ribavirin for the lifetime of the cells, releasing it into the body's systems when old cells are degraded in the spleen.

About a third of absorbed ribavirin is excreted into the urine unchanged, and the rest is excreted into urine as the de-ribosylated base 1,2,4-triazole 3-carboxamide, and the hydrolysis product of this, 1,2,4-triazole 3-carboxylic acid.

Adverse effects

Ribavirin is not substantially incorporated into DNA, but does have a dose-dependent inhibiting effect on DNA synthesis, as well as having other effects on gene-expression. Possibly for these reasons, significant teratogenic effects have been noted in all non-primate animal species on which ribavirin has been tested. Ribavirin did not produce birth defects in baboons, but this should not be an indication that it is safe in humans. Therefore, two simultaneous forms of birth control are recommended during treatment of either partner and continued for six months after treatment. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant are advised not to take ribavirin. Of special concern with regards to teratogenicity is ribavirin's long half-life in the body. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) concentrate the drug and are unable to excrete it, so this pool is not completely eliminated until all red cells have turned over, a process estimated to take as long as 6 months. Thus in theory, ribavirin might remain a reproductive hazard for as long as 6 months after a course of the drug has ended. Drug packaging information materials in the U.S. now reflect this warning.

Ribavirin should not be given with zidovudine because of the increased risk of anemia; concurrent use with didanosine should likewise be avoided because of an increased risk of mitochondrial toxicity.

 

Adultos: (Adults)

Herpes zoster, varicela y herpes genital agudo (primario o recurrente): (Zoster, chickenpox, acute genital herpes)

VILONA® cápsulas: 1 cápsula 3 veces al día, durante 6 días como mínimo. /Vilona capsules, 1 capsule x 3 times per day, for 6 days minimum.

 

Profilaxis de las recurrencias del herpes genital: (Genital Herpes, recurring genital herpes)

VILONA® cápsulas: 1 cápsula diaria (dosis única) durante tiempo indefinido. / 1 capsule per day ONLY, during indefinite time period.

 

Hepatitis A:

VILONA® cápsulas: 1 cápsula 3 veces al día, durante 10 días.

 

Hepatitis B o C agudas:

VILONA® cápsulas: 1 cápsula 3 veces al día, durante 20 días.

 

Hepatitis B o C crónica:

VILONA® cápsulas: 1 cápsula 3 veces al día, durante 6-12 meses dependiendo de la respuesta en los parámetros séricos. Reducir paulatinamente la dosis hasta suspenderlo.

This is a Generic drug and not a brand name medicine; because of it's generic form a compulsary licence(s) were issued in numerous countries allowing their fabrication, importation and distribution where they are legally permitted; and not in violation of any accords in regards to trademarks and patents. Be sure you are able to import these generic pharmaceuticals into your country prior to ordering; as some countries will not allow their importation.

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